A 23-year-old female presents with urinary frequency absent of infection. The final diagnosis is Diabetes Insipidus. She is treated with dDAVP.
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1. What would you expect her sodium level would be, high or low? Defend your answer.
2. Her osmolarity is elevated. Why?
3. Compare and contrast central vs. nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.
4. Explain the mechanism of dDAVP.
A 13-year-old female presents with malaise, facial edema and decreased urinary output. Prior history is positive for strep throat, previously treated. Her work-up revealed severe abnormal lab values. Her final diagnosis is post streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
1. What specific lab values would you suspect are abnormal? Defend your answer.
2. What is the significance of a positive strep infection?
3. Compare and contrast acute vs chronic glomerulonephritis.
4. Does glomerulonephritis resolve? Defend your answer.
A 19-year-old co ed presents with increasing diarrhea and constipation over the last 2 weeks. She has a history of celiac disease.
1. What is the role of immunity and celiac disease?
2. What is the effect of gluten on celiac disease?
3. Describe the pathophysiology of the diarrhea and constipation.
A 32 year-old-female who recently delivered twins presents with colicky type pain, URQ pain radiating to the shoulder. After workup, she is diagnosed with cholecystitis.
1. What is the role of the gallbladder?
2. Would you expect her to have nausea and vomiting? Defend your answer.
3. Why does the patient have referred pain?
4. How do gallstones form?