Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents written in 1930 focuses on the problem that the “great material advance of civilization” has led to our society being feeling unhappy (Freud, 1930). The unhappiness that Freud is referring to is because of the “almost intolerable degree of instinctual renunciation imposed by the cultural superego, a renunciation not only of erotic but also of aggressive (death) instincts” (Freud, 1930). In the book, Freud goes on to compare social and individual development and the similarities that the two share. Freud believed that society has led humans to become depressed and angry as the world was advancing at an alarming rate. Due to humans and their angry nature, they would then mistreat each other due to their high level of aggression. The ending of his book was interesting because Freud did not have any solution for society to improve their happiness. This school of thought changed modern psychology as Freud blamed civilization for unhappiness.
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