1. In aqueous solutions, there are three forms of glucose: the cyclic alpha-form (36%), the cyclic beta-form (64%), and a trace amount of the open-chain form. At equilibrium, the cyclic alpha- and beta-forms are constantly interchanging when in solution. (1) Explain why the cyclic forms exist predominately in solutions, AND (2) explain why the cyclic beta-form is more abundant than the cyclic alpha-form.
2. Name the monosaccharides and disaccharides in amylose and cellulose. Compare the structural and conformation differences between amylose and cellulose. A simple iodine test can be used to distinguish the two polysaccharides. (1) Describe the iodine test AND (2) explain the observation.
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3. List AND explain the side effects that can be caused consuming too much sorbitol.
4. Why are soluble fibers identified as prebiotics?