•Max Weber: the state as an autonomous source of power and an instrument of bureaucratic ‘domination’ (Herrschaft).
•On ‘democratic elite theory’
•Historical sociology – e.g. Michael Mann.
•Durkheim: the state as representative of the collective interest; as a moral instance. It must serve the people (in contrast to capitalism which only seeks profit).
Ruling Class, Ruling Ideas,
•‘The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it’.
•‘The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.’