Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to an extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization.
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