Nationality, which identifies the place of birth of the individual or the parents, is a more straightforward measure. Because cultural identity and ethnicity can be difficult to measure,
transmitted health conditions, it has some medical value. The categories used to measure race remain somewhat inconsistent across key national health data sources, as do indicators of ethnicity. Use of race and ethnicity indicators deserves careful attention.
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has historically been associated with specific genetic diseases, including sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and some forms of lactose intolerance. Race has also been used as a proxy measure of culture, ethnicity, and SES. To the extent that race can be used as a risk factor for specific genetically