Restrictions or lack of ability to perform activities resulting from physical limitations or from the interplay among those limitations, social responses, and the built or social environment. discrimination Differential and unequal treatment grounded in prejudice. See also prejudice. disease A biological problem within an organism. doctor–nurse game “Game” in which the nurse is expected to make recommendations for medical treatment in such a way that the recommendations appear to have come from the doctor. DRG See diagnosis-related groups. DSM See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. dysfunctional Refers to anything that threatens to undermine social stability. employer mandate A legal requirement that each employer offer health insurance to its employees and pay a specified percentage of the costs. endemic Referring to diseases that appear at a more or less stable rate over time within a given population. enhancements Techniques deemed to improve human traits beyond a level generally considered normal rather than to treat conditions considered deviant or defective. This distinction is artificial but occasionally useful. entrepreneurial system A system based on capitalism and free enterprise. environmental racism The disproportionate burden of environmental pollution experienced by racial and ethnic minorities. epidemic Either a sudden increase in the rate of a disease or the first appearance of a new disease. epidemiological transition The shift from a society burdened by infectious and parasitic diseases and in which life expectancy is low to one characterized by chronic and degenerative diseases and high life expectancy.
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