1. Confounding and Internal Validity: Discuss the concept of confounding variables in experimental design and their potential impact on internal validity. How would you identify and control for confounding variables in your research to ensure internal validity?
2. Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions: Consider a scenario in which you are conducting an experiment on the effects of a new therapy technique on anxiety levels. How would you assign participants to the experimental and control conditions? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of random assignment versus non-random assignment methods.
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3. Independent Groups Design: Explain the concept of independent groups design and provide an example of a study where this design would be appropriate. Discuss the strengths and limitations of this design and propose an alternative design that could address the limitations.