1. Describe the four themes that characterized
Renaissance humanism and give an example of each.
2. What arguments did Erasmus offer in support of free will, and what arguments did Luther offer in opposition to it?
3. Describe the Ptolemaic astronomical system and explain why that system was embraced by Christian theologians.
4. Summarize the theological implications of Copernicus’s heliocentric theory. On what basis did Copernicus argue that his heliocentric theory should replace Ptolemy’s geocentric theory?
5. On what philosophical conception of the universe was the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo based? Explain.
6. In what way(s) can the clash between the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems be likened to a Kuhnian scientific revolution?