Dialectic process According to Hegel, the process involving an original idea, the negation of the original idea, and a synthesis of the original idea and its negation. The synthesis then becomes the starting point (the idea) of the next cycle of the developmental process.
Direct realism The belief that sensory experience represents physical reality exactly as it is. Also called naive realism.
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Double aspectism Spinoza’s contention that material substance and consciousness are two inseparable aspects of everything in the universe, including humans. Also called psychophysical double aspectism and double aspect monism.
Faculty psychology The belief that the mind consists of several powers or faculties.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831) Like Spinoza, believed the universe to be an interrelated unity. Hegel called this unity the Absolute, and he thought that human history and the human intellect progress via the dialectic process toward the Absolute. (See also The Absolute.)