The model of employee behavior presents what we con- sider to be the key factors affecting employee behavior and their corresponding relationships. It includes two main categories: (1) external forces—that is, those found in the external environment (outside the organization), as well as in the work environment (inside the organization), including leadership, aspects of the organization itself, coworkers, and the outcomes of performance (such as praise); and (2) internal forces—that is, those within the employee, including motivation, attitudes, and KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities). This model assumes that external and internal forces interact or combine to produce a given behavior, and that employee behavior has a direct relationship to the personal and organi- zational outcomes that are obtained. Although it may be possible in some cases to trace the cause of a behavior to one or two dominant forces, we believe that overall patterns of behavior can best be explained by the combination of many factors.
Regarding clarity and relevance, this model is relatively simple to apply to HRD concerns. Our goal is not to cover all possible causes for employee behav- ior, but to include only those most critical to designing, delivering, and using HRD programs. Additional concepts will be presented in later chapters. The remainder of this chapter focuses on the elements contained within the model.
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